Infectious mononucleosis is an acute viral disease characterized by severe fever, lesions of the lymph nodes, oropharynx, liver, spleen. The disease is characterized by peculiar changes in the composition of the blood. For the first time clinical manifestations of the disease have been described by N.F. Filatov in the second half of the 19th century. Therefore, this disease is also known as Filatov's disease. usefull link buy antibiotics online
The causative agent of infectious mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr DNA virus-the genus Lymphocryptovirus of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and the family Herpesviridae. Viral DNA is able to replicate, including in B-lymphocytes. Unlike other viruses of the same family, this species does not lead to cell death, but on the contrary - causes active proliferation.
The main source of infection are infected people. The virus can be transmitted by airborne droplets. When infected, the virus initially enters the oropharynx, penetrates the tissues of the mucous membrane and infects lymphocytes, in which it is able to multiply and be transported throughout the body.
Virions have different antigens, each of which provokes the production of the corresponding antibodies. After the transferred infectious mononucleosis in the human body, immunity is produced.
Infectious mononucleosis is only one of the infectious forms caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This virus also causes Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the external environment, the virus is unstable and quickly dies when the heat and disinfectants dry up and act.
The incubation period for infectious mononucleosis is 4 to 6 weeks.
The disease begins acutely. The patient complains of weakness, headache, pain in the muscles and joints, fever, sleep disturbance, sore throat when swallowing. There is an increase in cervical lymph nodes and palatine tonsils. In addition, infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an increase in the liver and spleen. As a rule, the disease lasts for 2-4 weeks, after which the patient gradually recovers.
Diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical examination and laboratory blood tests. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by changes in blood: leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia. Detection of antiviral immunoglobulin M in the blood serves as a confirmation of the diagnosis.
The accepted classification of infectious mononucleosis is based on differentiation according to the type of disease, severity and course of the infectious process. In the vast majority of cases (more than 96%) there are typical forms of infectious mononucleosis with mild, moderate or severe severity. In this case, the course of the infectious process can be complicated, uncomplicated or relapsing. Significantly less common are atypical forms of infectious mononucleosis, possibly with an erased symptomatology and rare manifestations.
At high temperature, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes it is necessary to consult a doctor. With the development of more serious symptoms (dyspnoea, blue lips, nose, chest pains), it is urgent to call an ambulance, because it is possible to develop pneumonia.
Specific treatment of infectious mononucleosis has not yet been developed. Treatment of this disease is symptomatic and generally tonic. The patient is recommended to limit the physical load for the first 1-2 months because of the risk of rupture of the spleen. With an average and severe course of the disease, patients are hospitalized in a stationary department. With a mild form of infectious mononucleosis, you can be treated at home.
After recovery, the patient should be under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist for 6 more months, with obligatory repeated blood tests.
Complications of infectious mononucleosis are rare. The disease can be complicated by otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia. Very rarely (isolated cases), it is possible to develop renal failure, acute liver failure, ruptured spleen, hemolytic anemia, follicular angina, neuritis.
To date, no specific preventive measures have been developed in relation to this disease. As general preventive measures it is recommended to limit contact with sick people, as well as compliance with personal hygiene rules. Measures to strengthen immunity also reduce the likelihood of the disease.