Candidiasis of the oral cavity is a common fungal disease that affects both children and adults. As a rule, candidiasis indicates the presence of other diseases of the body, so when it appears you should undergo a thorough examination to identify the cause of the fungal infection.
Candidiasis of the mouth is a disease that is caused by yeast-like fungi from the genus Candida. Candida are unicellular fungi, and to date they are known for more than 150 species, with 20 of them can cause various diseases in humans. In the oral cavity, candida fungi can inhabit various areas: tonsils, carious cavities, channels of damaged teeth and other areas.
These fungi are part of normal human microflora. They are represented on the skin, in the intestine, in the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and in the vagina. However, in most people, the presence of these fungi does not cause any problems. The disease begins only when the balance is disturbed, and fungi begin to multiply intensively.http://diflucan-fluconazole.net/
According to medical observations, most candida of the oral cavity is found in infants. More than 20% of children in infancy have suffered this disease, and some of the children get Candidiasis several times. Note that in childhood, candidiasis is more easily tolerated and better treatable.
However, candidiasis of the oral cavity can affect not only infants, but also adults. According to statistics, this disease affects more than 10% of older people. Candidiasis of the oral cavity is those who are forced to use dentures. Under these constructions in the oral cavity creates a favorable condition for the reproduction of fungal microflora. Reduction of immune defense is another factor that promotes reproduction of fungal microflora in the body.
A person may not even suspect that he is a carrier of a fungal infection. These microorganisms are found in more than half of the people are not the planet. At the same time, a fungal infection can also get infected from another person.
Transmission of a fungal infection is possible with physical contact with the carrier of Candida infection. You can also get infected through contact with contaminated dishes, food, toys, clothes, water and other objects. During childbirth and breastfeeding, a baby can also get candida from his mother. You can infect candida fungi from animals. Thus, children playing with animals risk becoming infected with candidiasis of the oral cavity.
If many people candida make up a normal part of the microflora, it becomes obvious that for the development of the disease (eg, oral cavity candidiasis), only fungal infection is not enough. In the body, conditions should arise in which fungi begin to multiply. The human immune system actively resists fungi, preventing them from attaching to the mucous membrane and giving rise to colonies. Factors contributing to the development of candidiasis of the oral cavity are the following:
Weakening of the immune system. This is the main factor contributing to the development of fungal infection in the body. The immune system can fail due to various circumstances: for example, hypothermia, hormonal disorders, immunodeficiency due to a lack of vitamins or the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). When there are not enough immune cells in the body, the protection does not cope with all the functions assigned to it, and somewhere there is a failure. In particular, in the oral cavity it is possible to colonize fungi from the genus Candida.
Pregnancy. Pregnant women are also susceptible to candidiasis of the oral cavity. This is due to a change in the hormonal background in a pregnant woman, changes in metabolic processes and a decrease in immune defense. In such conditions, the fungus can bypass the immune defense and give rise to a fungal infection in the genitals or in the oral cavity.
Accompanying illnesses. The likelihood of developing oral candidiasis is significantly increased in HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, adrenal diseases, digestive organs and metabolic pathologies. So, often candidiasis of the oral cavity is one of the initial symptoms of impending diabetes. The above diseases negatively affect the metabolism and the state of the immune system, which makes the body prone to all sorts of infections, including fungal infections.
Some medications. Long-term use of certain drugs adversely affects the work of the immune system. In particular, it is a question of long courses of hormonal corticosteroids, which depress the work of the immune system. Also, the activities of the human's defense system are undermined by cytostatic (with chemotherapy of oncological diseases) and some other drugs.
Radiation therapy. When the body is irradiated, there is also a significant inhibition of the immune system, and one of the side effects of radiotherapy is fungal infection of the oral cavity.
Antibiotics. When a doctor prescribes a course of antibiotic therapy, along with the antibiotic, probiotics must be prescribed to avoid the development of a fungal infection in the genitals or in the oral cavity. Unfortunately, antibiotics destroy not only pathogenic bacteria, but also beneficial bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and mucous membranes. When the normal microflora is destroyed, an imbalance occurs, in which yeast fungi can begin to multiply actively, contributing to the development of candidiasis of the oral cavity.
Dysbacteriosis. Violation of the balance of intestinal microflora can occur both with the intake of antibiotics, and under the influence of various factors (for example, inflammatory bowel diseases). In such conditions, the development of a fungal infection is possible. In addition, candidiasis of the oral cavity can develop and with a shortage of B, C and PP vitamins, which are actively synthesized by some types of beneficial bacteria.
Bad habits. People who consume large amounts of alcoholic beverages and smokers have an increased risk of developing a fungal infection of the mouth. Substances that are part of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes destroy the normal balance of the microflora of the body and reduce the immune defense.
Reception of oral contraceptives. In some cases, oral contraceptives significantly disrupt the hormonal background, thereby contributing to the development of fungal infection.
Injuries of the oral mucosa. Even the smallest injuries of the mucous membrane of the mouth can serve as input gates for fungal infection. Such injuries, for example, can occur with an incorrect bite or with damaged teeth.
Dentures. Under dentures, good conditions are created for the growth and reproduction of fungal colonies. The likelihood of developing oral candidiasis is increased if the dentures are incorrectly adjusted for the patient. When wearing acrylic prostheses, there may be an allergy that contributes to the penetration of the fungal infection into the cells of the oral mucosa.
Pseudomembranous acute candidiasis of the oral cavity. This is the most common form of candidiasis, which in another way is called thrush. This form of the disease is often observed in children. If the disease developed in adults, then, as a rule, it indicates the presence of other pathologies that provoked candidiasis of the oral cavity. As a rule, the lips, cheeks, palate and back of the tongue are affected. The oral cavity with pseudomembranous acute candidiasis is covered with a white curdled coating. At first, this plaque is easily removed, but with the progression of the disease, the plaque becomes denser, and it becomes increasingly difficult to remove it. As a result, the oral surface becomes covered with erosions, and the patient becomes very painful to chew.
Atrophic candidiasis of acute type. With this kind of candidiasis of the oral cavity, the patient has severe burning and dry mouth. The mucous membrane becomes dry and red. If fungi affect the back of the tongue, then it becomes bright crimson. As a rule, with acute atrophic candidiasis, the plaque is not noted, and if it is, it is located deep in the folds and is removed with difficulty. Such a plaque is a combination of tissue cells with a large number of fungal cells at the budding stage.
Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis of the oral cavity. In chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, the oral cavity is covered with a dense coating, which firmly adheres to it. Covered with such a touch in the form of plaques and nodules of the back of the tongue, and the sky. In the sky with chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, papillary hyperplasia is formed. For this reason, the disease lasts long enough. Over time, the plaque begins to become saturated with fibrin, which leads to the appearance of yellow films. Such films are difficult to remove from the mucous membrane, even with a spatula. If the plaque is removed, then under it will be a mucous membrane with erosions, which begins to bleed. In addition to dense plaque, chronic hyperplastic candidiasis also exhibits severe burning, dryness and pain in the oral cavity.
Chronic atrophic candidiasis. Most often this form of candidiasis of the oral cavity occurs in individuals who use removable dentures. With such a kind of candidiasis, the oral cavity becomes dry, there is burning and pain when wearing a prosthesis. Because of the inflammatory process, provoked by fungi, the mucous membrane swells and overflows with blood. Under the prosthesis, erosion, papillomatosis and redness are formed. Plaque in this case is also removed quite difficult.